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Citation Methods in Scientific Texts

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Akram Ghadimi, Azita Manouchehri Qashqaie
Number of Pages: 
230000 Rials

Scientists establish the pillars of modern science by relying on previous knowledge to achieve growth and development in this field. The scientific works are always based on the principles, methods, tools, techniques or theories of the past. The most obvious proof of this is the bibliographic references or references at the end of each scientific work.

   One of the most important elements in scientific writing is citation that has a prominent role in the production and dissemination of scientific information. Citation is one of the basic principles of compilation and those works are welcomed by the scientific community that put a lot of effort and accuracy to observe this principle and its references are stable and explicit.

   Citations are like fixed traces that show the way of scientific discoveries, thoughts and scientific experiences. No scientific work can stand on its own without using the related previous knowledge. Citation is the main pillar of research as old as scientific literature. Today, citation is one of the indicators of measuring scientific works.

The main objectives of this book are:


  1. Introduction of modern methods of citation in scientific works;
  2. Introduction of methods of citation in various scientific disciplines;
  3. Review of prevalent methods of citation.

   Currently, various methods have been developed for citation. In this book some of them will be mentioned. These manuals of style are: the American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), American Medical Association (AMA), Turabian Citation Style, The Chicago Manual of Style, National Library of Medicine (NLM), The Vancouver Citation Style, Harvard Style Guide, The American Sociological Association (ASA), Geological Society of America (GSA), American Chemical Society (ACS), American Political Science Association (APSA), Institute of Electrical


and Electronical Engineers (AEEE) and American Institute of Physics Citation Style (AIP).

This book has 14 chapters. In the overview chapter citation, citation literature, types and styles of citation and the main reasons of citation are defined briefly. In what follows; APA, MLA, AMA, Turabian, Chicago, NLM, Vancouver, Harvard, ASA, GSA, ACS, APSA, AEEE, and AIP styles are expressed in details.


National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP) affiliated to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, I.R. Iran is a think tank in the fields of science and technology policy-making and research in the country.

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